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WHAT IS AN ULTRASONOGRAPHY ?Ultrasonography uses high-frequency sound (ultrasound) waves to produce images of internal organs and other tissues. A device called a transducer converts electrical current into sound waves, which are sent into the body’s tissues. Sound waves bounce off structures in the body and are reflected back to the transducer, which converts the waves into electrical signals. A computer converts the pattern of electrical signals into an image, which is displayed on a monitor and recorded on film, on videotape, or as a digital computer image. No x-rays are used.WHAT ARE THE PROCEDURE OF ULTRASONOGRAPHY?If the abdomen is being examined, people may be asked to refrain from eating and drinking for several hours before the test. Usually, the examiner places thick gel on the skin over the area to be examined to ensure good sound transmission. A handheld transducer is placed on the skin and moved over the area to be evaluated. To evaluate some body parts, the examiner inserts the transducer into the body—for example, into the vagina to better image the uterus and ovaries or into the anus to image the prostate gland. To evaluate the heart, the examiner sometimes attaches the transducer to a viewing tube called an endoscope and passes it down the throat into the esophagus. This procedure is called transesophageal echocardiography.

WHAT IS PATHOLOGYPathologist Pathology (from the Greek roots of pathos (πάθος), meaning "experience" or "suffering", and -logia (-λογία), "study of") is a significant component of the causal study of disease and a major field in modern medicine and diagnosis. The term pathology itself may be used broadly to refer to the study of disease in general, incorporating a wide range of bioscience research fields and medical practices (including plant pathology and veterinary pathology), or more narrowly to describe work within the contemporary medical field of "general pathology," which includes a number of distinct but inter-related medical specialties that diagnose disease—mostly through analysis of tissue, cell, and body fluid samples. Used as a count noun, "a pathology" (plural, "pathologies") can also refer to the predicted or actual progression of particular diseases (as in the statement "the many different forms of cancer have diverse pathologies"), and the affix path is sometimes used to indicate a state of disease in cases of both physical ailment (as in cardiomyopathy) and psychological conditions (such as psychopathy).[1] Similarly, a pathological condition is one caused by disease, rather than occurring physiologically. A physician practicing pathology is called a pathologist.WHAT ARE THE PREPARATIONS OF PATHOLOGYThere are many reasons to examine human cells and tissues under the microscope. Medical and biological research is under-pinned by knowledge of the normal structure and function of cells and tissues and the organs and structures that they make up. In the normal healthy state the cells and other tissue elements are arranged in regular recognizable patterns. Changes induced by a wide range of chemical and physical influences are reflected by alterations in structure at a microscopic level and many diseases are characterized by typical structural and chemical abnormalities that differ from the normal state. Identifying these changes and linking them to particular diseases is the basis of histopathology and cytopathology, important specializations of modern medicine. Microscopy plays an important part in haematology (the study of blood), microbiology (the study of microorganisms including parasites and viruses), and more broadly in the areas of biology, zoology and botany. In all these disciplines specimens are examined under a microscope

WHAT IS AN ULTRASOUND?An ultrasound scan is a medical test that uses high-frequency sound waves to capture live images from the inside of your body. It’s also known as sonography. The technology is similar to that used by sonar and radar, which help the military detect planes and ships. An ultrasound allows your doctor to see problems with organs, vessels, and tissues without needing to make an incision. Unlike other imaging techniques, ultrasound uses no radiation. For this reason, it’s the preferred method for viewing a developing fetus during pregnancy.WHAT ARE THE PREPRATIONS OF ULTRASOUND?The steps you will take to prepare for an ultrasound will depend on the area or organ that is being examined. Your doctor may tell you to fast for eight to 12 hours before your ultrasound, especially if your abdomen is being examined. Undigested food can block the sound waves, making it difficult for the technician to get a clear picture. For an examination of the gallbladder, liver, pancreas, or spleen, you may be told to eat a fat-free meal the evening before your test and then to fast until the procedure. However, you can continue to drink water and take any medications as instructed. For other examinations, you may be asked to drink a lot of water and to hold your urine so that your bladder is full and better visualized. Be sure to tell your doctor about any prescription drugs, over-the-counter medications, or herbal supplements that you take before the exam. It’s important to follow your doctor’s instructions and ask any questions you may have before the procedure. An ultrasound carries minimal risks. Unlike X-rays or CT scans, ultrasounds use no radiation. For this reason, they are the preferred method for examining a developing fetus during pregnancy.

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Dr. Girish Yevankar

Radiology

Dr Girish Yevankar has an experience of over 5 years in the field of Radiology. Expertise Radioactive substances MRI CT Scan Neonatal Screening Colour Doppler X- Ray and imagings Mammography Ultrasound Nuclear Radiology

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